Admiral Byrd ain’t got nothing on Dorogostaisky(1916)

Herald of the R.A.S. obtained from the academies own website THEN ran through the human free translator at Google Translate….

Enjoy!

 

 

 

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RESEARCH AT BAIKAL

Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences GI Galaz

The main base of scientific research on Lake Baikal – Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. This is the oldest research institution of the Academy of Sciences in Siberia 50 years. But the study of the lake – wonderful sea-lake – the Academy scientists have begun to engage in long before the establishment of the Institute.

In 1916 the Russian expedition to Lake Baikal was sent to Acadia ­ of Sciences in order to choose a place to build there is always researching ­ vatelskoy base. The expedition included scientists have known then by VN Sukachev, VI Dorogostaisky (expedition leader), and the Academy Now, there are young workers – KI Meyer, NP Baptist, IP Sidorychev T . B. Forsch, N. Konovalov, M. Rozanov Ts and the future founder of the Academy of scientific research institutions in Baikal Vereshchagin.Scientific management of the expedition carried outAcademician NV Nasonov.

In the same first biological station of the Academy it was created by the Baikal (in pos. B. Cats). Machinery and plant equipment, optionally ­ sary to start work, bought with money collected from parts ­GOVERNMENTAL donations. In 1921, in view of the difficulty of communication between Petrograd and Siberia station at the request of the Irkutsk University was transferred to it for temporary use (for 3 years).However, after this period the Academy did not insist on the return of the station, which has become by the time base for the practice of students and lakes hydrobiologists research 1 and constant organized an expedition to the Bay ­ Kale, which was launched June 19, 1926 This date is considered the birthday of limnological institutions of the USSR Academy of Sciences on Lake Baikal.

Great help in the organization of the expedition, which turned into 1928 in Baikal limnological station, provided Zoologists ­ cal Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Already in the first period of wide complex were deployed Inves ­ ment of both the lake and its basin, and in a short time managed to obtain extensive data on hydrological, hydrochemical

1 Hydrobiological Station of Irkutsk university exists in the infusion ­ present time.

 

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Ceska, ice lake and biological regimes. Carried out in those years an inventory of the flora and fauna of Lake Baikal revealed many hundreds but ­ O for the science of animal and plant species. Relief of the lake bottom was studied and compiled bathymetric map. Carried out at the same pas leolimnologicheskie research allowed to find out the history of the lake basins of East Asia and malacofauna, t. E. Fauna pier ­ mollusks, from the Lower Jurassic to the present. The results of all of these works have been praised as the scientific community in our country, and abroad.

Among the theoretical issues developed during the period Bai ­ Kal limnological station should emphasize the development of ideas about limnology as a science and its position in the system of related scientific disciplines.

During the Great Patriotic War the station conducted a study to address important national economic and defense tasks. gap ­ ated proposals to intensify the fisheries of Lake Baikal, to investigate the possibility of using the ice cover of the lake as a transport route, and others.

After the war, in connection with the development of the productive forces of Siberia and the start of construction of the Irkutsk hydroelectric station performs an important pa ­Bots on hydrochemistry, hydrology, thermals, ice lake modes associated with the design and operation of the hydropower plant. And by ­ The following years, the station was involved in solving major narodnohozyay ­ governmental tasks. It is interesting in this context to recall its participation in the debate in 1958 about a proposal to make a slit in the source p. An ­ gars, and opening wider access to it the waters of Lake Baikal, to accelerate

 

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filling the reservoir Bratsk hydropower plant to make it ahead of time to talk. It is good that the proposal was rejected. It would have resulted in a decrease of the water level in the lake by 5-7 m, with the result that would be laid bare large areas of the coastal shallow waters of Lake Baikal, violating ­native equilibrium between the water and the shore, develop during long geological history, which would be accompanied by a mass of troubles: be revived landslides on the banks would be barred by the way fish (omul, grayling in the first place) to spawn in the river, would become shallow, and in some cases have had dried completely ports.

In 1961 the Baikal Limnological Station was reorganized into the Limnological Institute, to which, together with the study of spe ­ cific features of the Baikal nature faced with the task of studying the complex and other lakes and reservoirs, the vast territory of Siberia and the Far East in order to validate the use of their re ­ resources and governance processes occurring in them.

The Institute – a major research institution, which employs 355 people, including 120 scientific and engineering staff, including two Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 6 doctors and 40 candidates of sciences.

In the structure of the Institute 12 labs, 4 permanent expedition on the Rights of laboratories (Bratsk, Yenisei, Trans-Baikal and Baikal-Amur), Scientific Library (more than 50 thousand. Volumes), Museum Baikalova Denia and production units. The Institute has a research fleet of ships of different tonnage, turn ­ conductive 10 pennants and mosquito fleet (about 30 units).

During the reporting period the Institute conducted an extensive multi-year IP ­ repetition and published materials on hydrometeorological D ­ Bench, water and heat balance of Lake Baikal, the Bratsk reservoir on hydrochemistry Baikal and its tributaries, on the biological productivity of the lake and the effect on his business. Completed a wide range of integrated landscape-limnological studies Close ­ necks in Siberia Putoransky Lakes system. Studied biological pro ­inductance Group Ivano-Arahleyskih lakes in the Trans-Baikal region. continuing ­ They are long-term studies and the formation of bio-productivity ka ­ Water-operation in the reservoirs of the Angara and Yenisei.

In connection with the construction of the Baikal-Amur railway ma ­ gistrali Institute initiated comprehensive research lake Sate ­ scape along the route of the BAM.

Do not attempt to describe all the work of the Institute, we note only those who completed the most significant results.

Thus, the study of the Baikal basin morphology using eholo-tirovanie allowed to create a new bathymetric map of Lake Baikal and gave the opportunity to establish and describe the geomorphological features of the underwater part of the basin. Based on extensive research litodina-nomic processes in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal revealed patterns and speed of development of slopes in different landscape groups, patterns of longshore sediment transport and features formedtion of Baikal underwater platform. The simulation devel ­relief ment in the basin. Shartla – lake inflow. Now razrabaty ­INDICATES model material transfer land – water body and therefore created a map exogeodynamic processes Baikal basin, uses ­ bathroom design water protection zone of Lake Baikal.

In recent years, new materials obtained by the lithology of bottom sediments of Lake Baikal, a new covering the history of the formation of Bai ­ Kal basin.

 

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A climatic zoning of the Baikal coast and When ­Baikal with a view to their sustainable economic and recreational development and design of water protection measures. deployed studied ­ chenie anthropogenic impacts on air and climate of Lake Baikal. As a result of long-term geo-botanical studies designed bot ­ nical method of determining the dates of the high lake water horizon in the past, the former date mudflows, landslides progress, rock falls, avalanches and so on. With this method revealed zakono ­ dimension of fluctuating water levels in the lake and the magnitude of these oscillations in thepost-glacial period to the present day. Compiled geobotanic car ­ You coasts of Northern Baikal.

Hydrological and hydrophysical studies the regularities of the formation of the main meteorological elements ­ Comrade Baikal waters.Hydrometeorological substantiated zoning of its waters and on this basis, developed a method for calculating hydrometeorological ­ logic elements according to the coastal observation stations.

A complete characterization of the ice of the lake regime, formation, growth and destruction of the ice cover in the long-term average values ­ tions, and for some years. We spend more experimental andtheoretical studies of the formation of the light regime of water tol ­ soup lakes in the presence of the ice cover and ice-free period.

Extensive work has been devoted to the dynamics of the lake waters and mathematics ­ cally modeling the spread of impurities, which is important for assessing the impact on the natural lake biocomplexes entering it waste or polluted river water.

Completed and published a summary of work on the hydrochemistry of the lake, including its deep domain, on hydrochemistry of rivers of the entire basin. Consider

 

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read the chemical balance of the lake, quantified way vnutriozernoy migration of some chemical elements: silicon, iron, phosphorus, organic matter and other primary products were studied. ­ of Lake Baikal and the dynamics of nutrient compounds. It turned out hi ­ nomic composition of groundwater and groundwater lakeside.

Biological research at the Institute were aimed primarily at finding ways of formation of biological products of various bodies of water, especially the lake. The study of the dynamics of stocks of phytoplankton and zooplankton biology and production of commercial fish fauna make it possible ­ it possible to evaluate the overall activities of pelagic in energy terms ­ cal ecosystem of Lake Baikal on the creation of an organic substance and its transformation into the food chain. Calculated, in particular, a production capacity of key groups of organisms and the definition in the first approximation ­ Delena quantitative relationships between organisms of different trofiche ­ cal levels. It has been established that the commercial species mastered advan- ­ muschestvenno coastal shelf zone of the lake, bounded by 250-300 m isobath. It turned out that a total yield of useful products (20-22 kg / ha) of Lake Baikal shelf area is not inferior to many major Oz ­ frames and seas, but at the same time, this area most exposed to unwholesome ­pleasant anthropogenic influence. As shown by the data published ­ nye in the press and presented in the reports on the various scientific con ­ ences, including international, Baikal is one of the few large reservoirs of the world, for which received a full comprehensive assessment of all parts of the formation of productivity.

Particular attention was paid to the study of the most important commercial species of Baikal – omul, whitefish and Baikal seal – the seal, and ­ golomyanka same-goby fish, fish products to create basic lake. The morphology, distribution, weight and linear growth, age and sex structure, sexual cycles, nutrition, population, bio ­ and mass production of the most important representatives of the fish fauna. Developed practical suggestions for conservation and increase in stocks of valuable fish species (cisco, whitefish), in their rational economic uses ­ vaniyu and long-term forecasts of production and recovery of natural cisco, seals and other fishing lake organisms. For the first ­ vye assessed the role of seals in Lake Baikal, its impact on the fish population and fishery of the lake. Developed and implemented in practice recommen ­ mendations on the rational use of the seal, which is appreciating the herds ­ are now in the 68 th. heads. Studied biology of reproduction spring-spawning fish Bratsk reservoir, analyzes the formation of ichthyofauna during its filling and conclusions relating to the prospects of increasing the fish resources of the pond.

There were already familiar figures on the maximum Glu ­Bina Baikal (1620 m), its size, the absolute (23 thous. km 3)and the attitudes ­ respect to the volume contained in it with fresh water (Lake Baikal Vs mi ­ rovyh its stocks and a 4/5surface fresh water reserves in the country), and others. On the basis of these data, which are the results ­ tat of many years of hard work of employees Limnological camp ­ tion – the Institute compiled and published atlas of the Baikal, which summarizes the main characteristics of the unique freshwater storage. Atlas is of great scientific and practical importance. Such media is not yet in any country.

Research on Lake Baikal, performed by members of limnology ­ cal Institute, as well as some other institutions (zoological ­ th and Botanical institutes of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, Moscow and Le ­ Leningrad University, and others.), have led to significant progress

 

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our knowledge of the flora and fauna of the lake. Found new, not yet described shapes of animals, which is a general list of recently (after 1962) added more than 300 names. Extremely rich and diverse fauna was small animals – ostracods, nematodes and parasites komensalov of protozoa and worms. Significantly supplemented information on deep-water fauna of the lake; it was more diverse than previously thought.Currently in the lake there are more than two thousand species of animals and plants, of which more than two thirds – are endemic (until 1925 about 780 species have been known).

The Institute has since 1967 carried out systematic observations of with ­ standing communities of organisms in the discharge area of the Baikal drainage purposes ­ lyuloznogo plant. It is proved that soil pollution causes severe depletion of the species composition of the fauna, measurable quantitative and structural ­ tion the bottom of the lake communities.Based on many years of experience gidrobio ­ logical, hydrochemical research Institute developed the theory ­retical valuation principles of maximum permissible concentration ­ tions substances discharged into water bodies with wastewater, and on the basis of ­ SRI these guidelines propose specific standards for harmful substances discharged into the lake.

Systematic observation of the evolution of life took place at the Institute of the Angara reservoirs. The long-term cycle of complex investi- ­ ments of production processes carried out in the Ivano-Arahleyskih lakes in the Trans-Baikal region. The comprehensive research lake Putoransky provinces ­ tion were received the first information about the composition and quantitative development of phytoplankton and benthos ultraoligotrophic subarctic waters.

From the earliest days of the Institute conducts a broad popularization ­ tion of scientific knowledge about the nature and problems of studying Lake Baikal.John Halls ­ stitutskogo baykalovedeniya museum over the past 15 years, visited the 1350 th

 

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People from all over the Soviet Union and from different countries of the world. Institute at ­ Nimal participated in took place in the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Japan, the United States shows, covering the development of science in Siberia, and in particular investi- ­ Baikal tion.

One of the nearest tasks of the Institute – the automation of the collection and handling ­ processing of field data with the aid of a computer and other special mouth ­ tron devices. They must be organized new laboratories and offices in the lane ­Department of Hydrobiology and foremost, biogeochemistry laboratory aquatic eco ­ ogy, radiobiology, water resources, water dynamics and cartography.

The development of the productive forces of Siberia, an increasing hozyayst ­ vennaya activities in its waters attach particular importance to clarify the human impact on freshwater bodies, finding ways to neutral ­ tion of negative impacts on the water bodies, as well as identifying opportunities to increase their biological resources. All these problems can not be solved without the experimental studies, in connection with what follows in the nearest time to start building an experimental base on Lake Baikal. Its creation will allow to expand the study of the biology of organisms and functioning as the biocenoses of the lake and other natural waters of Siberia.

In view of the need to provide year-round observations on the remote lake systems of Siberia and the Far East is advisable to establish hospitals on the Angara (Bratsk), Yenisei (Krasnoyarsk), Lena, Kolyma and Indigirka, and the Taimyr (Norilsk) and Dahl ­ non-oriental (on the lake. Khanka) hospitals!

Modernization of the fleet should be provided Insty ­mulberries, equipping ships to new scientific equipment. It is necessary to pur ­ rösti expedition ships for research of Lena, Indigirka and Coke ­ we, and for the study of the depths of Lake Baikal – the bathyscaphe or researcher ­ cal submarine.

The main task of the Institute for the near future – D ­ shenie practical issues of use and conservation of natural resources of Lake Baikal and the development of the theory of the conservation and rational ­ tional use of natural resources reservoirs. It is necessary to decipher the qualitative and quantitative relationships in the ecosystem of the reservoir, lake elemental landscape. Already outlined the contours of the solution of this difficult problem. I must say that the quality interac mootnosheniya detected relatively easily and for many eco lake they are already defined systems. Task determine the quantitative interaction relations much more difficult. Limnology is only on the approaches to its solution, which will open up the ability to control the natural processes themselves, taking place in the pond.

Even at the XXIV Congress of our Party Central Committee of the CPSU General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev he said: “Not only we, but also the follow-on generation should be able to enjoy all the benefits, koto rye gives the wonderful nature of our homeland” 2 . And in the XXV Congress of the Party, Leonid Brezhnev put directly in front of our science the task of improving the socialist nature management.

Employees of Limnological Institute will put all his energy and knowledge to deeper research resources of lakes and reservoirs in Siberia, to provide maximum assistance to its national economy in developing measures for the rational use of these resources, to plows injured unique nature of Lake Baikal.

“UDC 577.472 (28)

2 “Materials XXIV Congress of the CPSU.” Moscow, 1971, pp. 57-58.

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